This book adopts a contemporary subject classification method, i.e. it divides traditional culture into eight categories: philosophy, ethics, religion, education, literature, art, history and technology, and focuses on the content of these eight aspects that are the most basic and most characteristic, that have made contributions about Chinese traditional culture to the world. This book introduces the background and development process of Chinese traditional culture, origins and background, the formation and development of Confucianism, the main classical works, the main thoughts of Confucianism and its influence on Chinese culture, the formation and evolvement of Taoism, the influence of Taoism on Chinese culture, the complementary relationship between Confucianism and Taoism in Chinese culture. Also, it describes the characteristics of Legalism in the Pre-Qin period and the ancient legal system in China, the representatives and their thoughts on Legalism, the conflict between Confucianism and Legalism, Confucianism and the law, the brilliant achievements of ancient Chinese literature, the cultural characteristics of ancient Chinese literature, ancient Chinese art, ancient Chinese science and technology, Chinese folk-custom culture, the basic characteristics of Chinese culture, Chinese traditional culture and modernization, etc. Meanwhile, it outlines the historical developments when introducing specific patterns of traditional culture in each chapter, then further explores the modern significance of this traditional culture. This is a text for those interested in understanding traditional Chinese culture.